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Monitoring Increasing Salinity of the Mekong Delta

Posted by Beate Stalsett Thursday, October 2, 2014 0 comments

By Jessica Morgan 

IFAD has initiated a programme to develop a monitoring and early warning system to combat the increasing salinity levels of the Mekong Delta.

At the mouth of the Mekong, salty seawater rushes inland to mingle with the fresh water. This balance between fresh and saltwater is crucial to the ecosystems that inhabit the area, however with increasing water extraction of freshwater upstream and rising sea levels downstream the careful balance is tipping. Saltwater is now moving further up the Mekong estuary with devastating effects.
Natural ecosystems and human activities are dependent on the salinity balance within the delta. As freshwater is becoming scarce, management of the delta system is focused on protecting freshwater sources through heavy infrastructure. However, this is largely unsustainable and IFAD is attempting to move to an adaptation strategy. Examples include adjusting cropping calendars and introducing saline tolerant rice.

However, the basis for creating a successful adaptation system is reliable knowledge. Farmers need access to accurate information systems to determine when the water will be at its most saline or at its freshest. Also people, such as irrigation system managers, need to know when to open and close floodgates and where and when new infrastructure investments are required. This knowledge is essential to accommodate adaptation needs.

However to put this into practice is quite a challenge. Monitoring salinity is not an easy task in an estuary. The Mekong Delta consists of a variety of different rivers, irrigation systems, drainage canals, dikes and floodgates. Consequently water flow is varied resulting in a patchy distribution of salinity levels. The tidal nature of the delta also increases high variation in readings making interpretation of data extremely difficult.

To make matters worse, there is currently no shared base of knowledge for the various stakeholders. This can lead to a lack of knowledge among  people such as smallholder farmers, who usually are the individuals most affected by the increasing salinity.

The Adaptation in the Mekong Delta (AMD) project will develop a joint and open access salinity monitoring and early warning system aimed at all user levels of the Delta. It will be installed in two provinces: Ben Tre and Tra Vinh, with the intention of scaling up to the entire mouth of the Mekong in the future.

The system will make near-real-time information available through a web platform, as well as through a text messaging service (SMS) for farmers. It will use manual data from individual farmers at field-level and automated data from monitoring stations to produce the most accurate results. This system will be fully open access, meaning that everyone can can access the data at no charge. Though the main focus is on salinity information, selected automated stations will also monitor water quality variables to enable improved environmental management.

Achieving consistent, reliable and timely information to relevant stakeholders is the primary objective of the system. The secondary objective is the building up of historical data which can allow researchers to detect trends and make long-term forecasts, which will subsequently feed into the planning process. This data when linked with an upstream river information system can in the future enable real-time short-term (hours to a few days) forecasting.

The key to this operation working successfully is co-operation and communication between the different stakeholders. Therefore they will all be closely involved with the development of the system and their comments and input will be included within the programme design.

Read more about IFAD's Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme.

Agricultural Marketing Improvement Programe Photo Blog

Posted by Wairimu Mburathi Monday, September 29, 2014 0 comments

The Agricultural Market Improvement Programme (AMIP) an IFAD supported project implemented since 2006 recently closed in July 2014. The seven year project funded by an IFAD loan contribution of USD 35.1 million and the contribution of USD 7.9 million by the Government of Ethiopia aims to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural marketing for farmers in Ethiopia. Recently an IFAD supervision team undertook a closing mission for the project, this is a photo blog of activities they viewed.  

AMIP has developed processing, storage and transport technologies to reduce post-harvest crop losses and increase farmers’ returns, thus empowering 500,000 smallholder farmers to engage in and exploit emerging market opportunities.  he project has trained 412,758 farmers and agro-pastoralist on basic marketing for a range of agricultural products. Strengthening the marketing and post-harvest technology extension support that farmers receive, the project trained 4,003 experts and 8,340 Government development workers and cooperative promotion agents. Establishing and supporting 1,384 marketing groups, the project was able to identify potential markets for these groups consequently supporting them to pursue joint marketing plans.

The project also established a credit-line of USD970, 000 disbursed by the Federal Bank of Ethiopia to micro-finance institutions (MFIs). As a result, farmers have been able to apply for loans by using group collateral thus enabling small holder farmers to gain access to post-harvest technologies such as; coffee hand pulpier, fruit & vegetable boxes, processing & packing machines, milk handling and processing technologies amongst many other technologies. This is a photo blog to share the results of the project AMIP.

AMIP established Bati Futo marketing group, in Butajira woreda in Southern Ethiopia. The group has 150 members who have received training through the project on basic agricultural marketing practices.
Within Bati Fitu marketing group, 31 members have been able to access  AMIP supported post-harvest loans disbursed by Omo Micro-Finance Institution (MFI). Farmers in Bati Futu  marketing group is beneficial because individuals are then able to qualify for loans through group collateral. They are able to buy animal drawn carts or Garis that cost up to Birr 3000 (USD 150) enabling them to transport good to the market.  

"Once I took a loan to buy storage crates, I found the boxes very useful to store the produce at home and to transport it, we now have good standards and quantities of tomatoes to sell at the market,"Mussama Jemal, a member of Bati Futo marketing goup told us. Jemal is able to grow at least two crops a year on his small plot of about 30 by 50 meters and he grows tomatoes and onions, harvesting up to 50 creates of tomatoes of 50kg each.

Providing loans to Cooperatives and Rural Savings and Credit Organizations and their Unions beneficiaries are able to jointly process their goods and sell their products in the market. Individuals are also encouraged to save and make investments to launch enterprises and undertake value addition to gain better prices for their goods.

Areka primary cooperative with 447 members, of which 175 are female, took an AMIP funded loan of Birr 400,000 (USD 20,000)  from Omo MFI to construct a coffee washing station and to purchase a coffee pulpier that removes pulp and husks of the coffee. With support from government extension workers, the cooperative has received training to license and improve the quality of their jointly washed and dried coffee that is now sold for a better price of 91 Birr/Kg (USD 4.5 per kg) compared to 56 Birr/kg  (USD 2.80 per kg) due to improves handling and processing that adds value to their coffee beans.  

There is no 'Planet B'

Posted by Christopher Neglia Wednesday, September 24, 2014 0 comments

By: Gernot Laganda

The eyes of the world are on the UN Secretary General's Climate Summit in New York. Over 120 heads of state are roaming the halls of the UN building, telling the world about their perspectives, actions and intentions on climate change. Although some key players are missing, such as Chinese President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, most commentators have good things to say about this Summit. The strategy of the UN Secretary General to request 'bold and decisive action' has clearly left a mark - the announcements countries have made at this Summit to date have mostly been substantive (overview).

In the past, most speeches at this kind of event were simply acknowledging climate change as a defining problem of the 21st Century and inferring that some urgent action is needed. This approach may have helped countries to delay several complex and uncomfortable reforms, such as the phasing-out of fossil fuel subsidies or the taxing of carbon pollution, but it has also led to a huge aggregate delay on concrete global climate action. The inconvenient truth about greenhouse gas emissions, however,  is that they do not stop at national boundaries. As more extreme weather events are being recorded in all parts of the world, more and more alarm bells from climate scientists (IPCC AR5), think tanks (WRI's The Climate Change Connection to U.S. Public Health) and civil society groups are starting to ring. The climate march in New York City last Saturday is a good example: Over 400,000 people took to the streets, many with signs saying ‘There is no Planet B’.

At this week's UN Climate Summit, one cannot help but notice that the tone of some of the country statements has changed. Many countries have had an opportunity to reflect on their own experiences with climate disasters, from floods to droughts to wildfires and tropical storms. US President Obama referred to many recent examples in his statement, concluding that 'we are the first generation who is experiencing the impacts of climate change, and also the last generation that can do anything about it'.  This got amplified by other prominent commentators who shared their frustration about the fact that green technologies are ready to go to scale at affordable prices, but there is still too little political drive and inertia in the status quo to make transformational progress.

For an organisation such as IFAD, which is championing the cause of smallholder adaptation at this Summit, this event has confirmed that we are among the fastest and most decisive movers on climate action. IFAD’s flagship programme for climate change adaptation is only two years young, but keeps getting recognized by donors and agriculture ministers from around the world as one of the most tangible examples of climate action. In 2015, at the 21st Conference of Parties of the UN Climate Change Convention, we hope to realize that our efforts in the field of climate change adaptation are met by equally decisive actions on emission reductions.  

IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze visits IFAD supported projects in Ethiopia

Posted by Wairimu Mburathi Sunday, September 21, 2014 0 comments

IFAD President  with members of Edget Cooperative a register member of Yetsanet
Fana Union supported by IFAD supported RUFIP in Butajira, Ethiopia.
On the heels of the African Green Revolution Forum, the IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze took the opportunity to visit IFAD supported Projects in Southern Ethiopia, traveling to Butajira in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples region and Arata Chufa in Oromia Region.

The IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze traveled to Ethiopia to make an inaugural opening speech on 3rd September 2014. During the opening speech he urged for investment in the agricultural sector as a means for economic growth to transform the lives of the rural poor and particularly engaging the youth; “Yes many African economies are growing strongly, but too often this is on the back of extractive industries that do not yield jobs and income for Africa’s poor and hungry,” he said.

The AGRF brought together 1,000 agriculture officials, farmers, entrepreneurs, scientists, civil society organizations and pioneers in agribusiness representing 60 countries to discuss how the African continent may successfully launch and sustain a Green Revolution. Closing the conference Former President of Ghana concluded that it was time for less talk and more action, “Africa is ready to catch up with the rest of the world,” he said. To pave a way forward H.E. Tumusiime remarked, “Discussions this week at AGRF are an important step towards the actions we must take collectively to accelerate agricultural transformation in Africa.”

The IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze at the IFAD exhibition stand with IFAD staff 
who participated in the African Green Revolution Forum.
Before the opening the President had the opportunity to travel to Butajira and Arata Chufa to meet the beneficiaries of IFAD support supported projects and see first-hand how the Fund’s investments are transforming their livelihoods. In Butajira he interacted with members of Edget Cooperative, which is a registered member of Yetsana Fana Cooperative Union that has received financial management trainings and a credit loan to bolster its services for its 108 cooperative members under the second phase of the Rural Financial Intermediary Programme. Women play a strong leadership role in the 290 members strong Edget Cooperative. Almost half the members are women headed households and all but one of the members of the governing committee are women.

Kibe Kamere shared her experience of taking of 15,000 Birr (USD 750) and raising 3,000 Birr (USD 150) through her savings to purchase a dairy cow.  “I am not going to borrow in the future without a financial plan,” she told the IFAD President, while sharing her future investment plans.

Members shared their personal experiences of taking loans to launch small enterprises and to develop their farming activities. Loans have been used to invest in activities such as, rearing small ruminates, to purchase inputs (seeds and fertilizers) for their farms and to launch dairy processing activities. The President commended their efforts, encouraging them to continue to invest with their business plans in mind, ensuring to better the livelihoods of their families.

The IFAD President also visited Bati Futo marketing group that was established by the Agricultural Marketing Improvement Programme. The project established the 150 member strong marketing group providing them with training on basic marketing. Members have been able to qualify for loans from OMO micro-finance institution (MFI) that is supported by the project credit fund. A majority of members took loans to purchase animal drawn cart or to purchase boxes to transport their produce, tomatoes, fruits and onions to the market. While discussing the challenges the farmers continue to face to access markets, he emphasized that IFAD hopes to focus its future investments in Ethiopia to create better access to markets and the lessons learned while implementing AMIP will contribute to strengthening future efforts.

Delmanash a member of Bati Futu marketing cooperative explained that since she joined Bati Futo marketing group she is now; aware of market prices in surrounding areas, able to sell her produce when the price is most beneficial and can now easily transport her produce to the market by using wooden boxes and an animal drawn cart that she purchased through a loan funded by the Agricultural Marketing Improvement Programme.
The IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze addresses Bati Futo marketing cooperative members
The final visit was to Arata Chufa, where the IFAD President viewed a Participatory Small Scale Irrigation Development Programme scheme. The IFAD President had the opportunity to discuss with farmers how they have managed to successfully market their produce from irrigated small-scale farms. The 100 hectare scheme established 14 years ago under IFAD supported Special Country Programme phase one is managed by a water user association of 324 members. The WUA, which is a registered irrigation cooperative serves as a platform to encourage beneficiaries to collaborate and jointly improve their farming practices, working together to overcome hurdles they face while adapt irrigation technologies.

IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze is welcomed by the Arata Chufa water user association that manages a 100 hectare irrigation scheme supported by the IFAD supported Participatory Small Scale Irrigation Development Programme in Ethiopia.

Melake Zige the Chairperson of Arata Chufa water user association (r) discusses their annual work plan and expected profits from the irrigation scheme with the IFAD President Kanayo F. Nwanze (c)

Before the Arata Chufa scheme was established Medina Hamzino Hamdinot used to grow wheat in her 0.25 hectare land only enough for her subsistence. She has now introduced sugar cane and potatoes onto her farm enabling her to is gain 20,000 Bir (USD 1000) per harvest.

Joseph Bayena a model farmer and former chairperson of the Arata Chufa WUA in 2004.  Over ten years he has expanded his 0.25 hectare farm to 10 hectares by investing gains from his harvest of tomatoes, peppers, potatoes and beans.

A photo blogpost by Mariajose Silva Vargas

An ex-combatant waiting to receive inputs for production in Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire.  © IFAD/Mariajose Silva Vargas
My name is Mariajose Silva Vargas, I am a Bolivian national currently finishing my internship in the Office of the President and Vice-President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Furthermore, I just graduated from Ghent University in Belgium with an International Master of Science in Rural Development (IMRD) degree.

In June 2014 I went to four different cities in Côte d’Ivoire to collect data for my master's dissertation and for this reason, I visited the IFAD Projet d'appui à la Production Agricole et à la Commercialisation (PROPACOM). Specifically, I met with a special cluster of the project's beneficiaries: the ex-combatants.

Indeed, the country’s last civil conflict ended in 2011, and nowadays there are around 74.000 ex-combatants that need to be reintegrated into the socio-economic life. Thus, IFAD is assisting the Authority of Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration (ADDR) by forming, supporting and installing 2000 ex-combatants into the agro-pastoral sector.

 “The project's objective is to integrate ex-combatants, because they had nothing after the two crises. After years of fighting they had to go back to their life,”  said Mr Pierre Soro Seydou, coordinator of the PROPACOM team in Bouaké.

Ex-combatant and his family work in the field near Ferkessédougou, Côte d’Ivoire.   © IFAD/Mariajose Silva Vargas
During the first days of my visit, I was very nervous: indeed, I wondered how to talk to them or ask them about their life after the war, since inevitably the reintegration of ex-combatants is a very delicate issue. Nevertheless, when I met them, their communities and families, they were all very kind and available to answer all of my questions. Therefore, during our conversations, they explained to me that today they just want to take care of their families, and this is one of the main motives why they want to become farmers.

The children in an ex-combatant’s community in Ferkessédougou, Côte d’Ivoire.  © IFAD/Mariajose Silva Vargas
Consequently with the project, the ex-combatants and their communities receive training to start or to return to work in the agricultural sector. In fact, many of them were already farmers before the first crisis in 2002. Indeed, Mr Yefarguia Kone, one of the former fighters said to me:

“I was born in agriculture, before the war I was also a farmer”

In any case, with the training they also learn new techniques to increase the production, such as methods to process cassava into manioc, or shea nuts into shea butter. For them, the formation is essential for many reasons, such as to improve the quality of their production or enhance social cohesion with other people.

Mr Yefarguia Kone explaining facts to me in the field,  Côte d’Ivoire.  © IFAD/Mariajose Silva Vargas
“ After the formation I have found many things that have helped me to improve my everyday
life. Really, the formation have donated me many things, especially techniques in the
agriculture,” said Mr Yefarguia Kone.

A woman from the community producing shea butter, Côte d’Ivoire.  © IFAD/Mariajose Silva Vargas
Likewise, with the programme they get inputs to start production and they also receive further assistance to connect their communities to markets. For instance, Mr Nakoudjana Silue, one of the beneficiaries, got a tricycle to transport the food and sell it in town marketplaces. 

Mr Nakoudjana Silue got a tricycle to transport food to the markets, Côte d’Ivoire.   © IFAD/Mariajose Silva Vargas
 From my point of view, this project is a perfect example of the multi-functionality of agriculture, or in other words, that it can solve many issues in rural areas apart from producing food and fibre: it provides employment; it assures social inclusion of the most vulnerable people; and it can even provide social security and protection.

Written by Miriam Cherogony

The 6th China-Mozambique-IFAD South-South Cooperation workshop held in Maputo, Mozambique on 4-8 August 2014 conference focused on three important policy reforms in China that resulted in unblocking agricultural development and the China Africa Development Fund (CADFund).

The policy reforms focused on Chinese agricultural policy and impacts, agribusiness reform and mechanization, and research and development.  The progress in the Chinese agricultural policy and impacts was presented by Prof Zhang Xiaoshan. Various agricultural policies reforms enabled China to put in place incentives for smallholder farmers. The aim was to increase their participation in the agricultural sector development through improved property rights. The result has been an increase in grain production and incomes for farmers. The paper elicited an interesting discussion on the similarities of the challenges faced by China and Africa in rural urban migration and small parcels of land and property rights. The other was to understand how China has managed to change but Africa has not been able to change. The policies are in place but the difference is in the implementation of these policies in Africa.

Participants follow Discussions

The agribusiness reforms and agricultural modernization in China was presented by Prof Zhang Xiaoshan.  Although there existed diversified patterns on achieving China’s agricultural modernization, the policy makers favored the development of specialized households based on family farming and regarded it as mainstream in the agricultural management system. The households were encouraged to form cooperatives or associations. This enabled farmers to enter into secondary and tertiary industry and gain added value through the marketing and processing of their primary products. The mixed and diversified agricultural production system will continue to exist in China’s agriculture these are also inter-connected with China’s urbanization and industrialization process. This will inevitably influence the reform direction of rural land tenure system and rural governance structure. The key issue during this development is how to protect the interests of small farming households and protect the scarce resources of arable land, water and protect the environment. The plenary discussion centered on the weaknesses in the cooperative model on governance and management and this remain a challenge in China as well.

Investment in agricultural research and development was presented by Dr Chen Qianheng. The paper explained why the public sector is the main financier for R&D. R&D is a public good and returns take a very long time to realize. The investment in agriculture research comprises about 0.5% in China’s GDP, lower than the world’s average level (1%). In china, there are 2 million enterprises but only a few large-scale or technology-oriented enterprises are engaged in agricultural R&D. The future of agriculture technology is in the area of biotechnology, water saving technologies, agricultural mechanization and precision agriculture. In all OECD countries, modern agriculture focus mainly on high efficiency and competitiveness of agriculture, food security and increase in farmer’s incomes. The plenary discussions centered on private sector involvement in R&D; how farmers can participate in R&D and how R&D can be revamped to bolster productivity. The discussions drew on the similarities on R&D and how to make R&D relevant for the stakeholders to invest in it.

The China Africa Development Fund (CADFund) was presented by Henry Liu. In 2006, at the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, the President Hu Jintao announced the establishment of CADFund to encourage and support Chinese enterprises to invest in Africa. It has four offices in Africa namely Johannesburg, South Africa; Lusaka, Zambia; Accra, Ghana; and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Fund determines investment terms according to the industrial features, return on investment, risks, exit timing and approaches etc. of the projects.  Investment term of the Fund towards a single project is mainly 5 - 8 years, and will not exceed 10 years in principle. On a single project the Fund can invest USD5-50 million. It has 78 projects worth USD2.9 billion with a specific fund for Lusophone countries; Angola, Cape Verde and Mozambique. The CADFund is supporting the Wanbao project through a loan of USD60 million from China Development bank and equity of USD58 million (49%) from CADFund and USD60 million (51%) from Wanbao Enterprise joint venture of USD200 million. The CADFund signed a memorandum of understanding with IFAD in 2007. Now they are working on the modalities to link to the IFAD operating model and develop a CADFund-IFAD partnership.

The motives for China’s enterprises’ Overseas Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) in agriculture are very complex. It cannot be attributed to a single factor motive such as land grabbing overseas. The Chinese argued that so far, only a very small part of the agricultural products grown abroad was taken to China. A large portion is sold in the local market or exported to third markets. Therefore, China’s OFDI in agriculture has little impact on guaranteeing China’s food security. Most imported agricultural products from Africa are non-food items, including cotton, hemp, silk, oilseeds and other such products. The Chinese admit that China’s firms compete with local growers and some enterprises do not have a strong awareness of environmental protection and social responsibility but this is not the whole story. It is important to note that China’s enterprises’ agricultural OFDI increased agricultural investment, employment and expanded the supply of agricultural products in the local market of the host country. In the long run, the presence of China’s firms with advanced technology will benefit competition: through the expansion of local supplies while providing cheaper technologies that can be adapted and adopted by local farmers. China’s enterprises’ agricultural OFDI is win-win for the host country and China.

With the rising demand for food in China and the world, more and more Chinese enterprises will venture out. In order to eliminate anxiety about land grabbing from local farmers, Chinese companies should choose the suitable mode of agricultural OFDI. Deborah and Tang (2009) pointed out: “Any efforts by foreigners to produce on a large scale are likely to continue to be controversial. Systems of outgrowing, where farmers maintain control over their own land but have incentives to produce under contract to a central company, could be a middle ground.” Considering many host countries’ food insecurity, China’s companies can come to some agreement with the host country government on the share of land output. In order to benefit local agricultural firms more, China’s firms can set up co-operative enterprise or joint venture with local company to produce agricultural products. The discussion focused on land grabbing and environmental impact assessment citing the scale of these investments. The win-win strategy at the moment seems to favour China and needs to be revisited in terms of cross cultural issues, value addition of raw products, further technical assistance to improve governance and ownership, and more trade between China and Africa.

The strategy for agricultural development in Mozambique was presented by Mr Adriano Ubisse. Mozambique has a population of 24 million. Agriculture is fundamental for food security and economic development. The focus is on increasing production and area and improving the genetics. The strategy is linked to CAADP and PRSP to create competitive and sustainable agriculture, access to markets, food security, and ensure social equality. The initiative has four pillars: (i) increasing agricultural productivity and production; (ii) access to markets for improvement; (iii) sustainable natural resource; and (iv) strengthen institutions. The implementation is focusing on three corridors; (i) Nagala corridor in the north (ii) Beira Corridor in the central and (iii) Limpopo corridor in the south. This is coupled with the technical centres in each of these areas to support the development of the corridors. The participants will visit some of these technical centres during the field visits.

The IFAD Mozambique investment was presented by Mr Cândido Jaque, Directorate of Investment and Cooperation, Mozambique. IFAD began operations in Mozambique in 1983 and has provided more than US$200 million in financing for 12 programmes and projects in the country. Currently there are five on-going projects – PRONEA (supports the government's National Programme for Agricultural Extension); PROSUL (improve the climate-smart livelihoods of smallholder farmers in the Maputo and Limpopo corridors), a small EU project that focus on MDGs; ProPESCA (support to artisanal fisheries), and PROMER (supporting the Markets). The Chinese cooperation is focusing on Maize, Cotton, and Rice as well as development of the research centres.

The PROMER presentation on the development of markets was done by Ms Carla Honwana.  Agriculture is the main source of income in rural Mozambique. She mentioned that the project is driven by a reference committee in the various regions with representatives of public, private, civil society and farmers. The projects support (i) extension services focused on market access to advise the smallholder farmers to produce according to market demand; (ii) production and quality; (ii) adult education; iii) support to rural traders, access to financial services through savings and association groups; and iv) support market information systems which include prices, products, etc. The programme is supporting knowledge management in its parent ministry, DNPDR to ensure the Ministry has ownership of the lessons learned.

The Wanbao Project was presented by Mr Armando Ussivane, Chairman of Agriculture Sector Strategic Plan (PEDSA). In Mozambique there is a total of three million hectares of irrigated land. The demand for rice is 550,000 tonnes with only 300,000 tonnes produced locally, leaving a gap of 250,000 tones to meet.  This led to the development of the Wanbao project or PEDSA. It has three objectives namely: (i) increase production and productivity; (ii) access to markets; and (iii) sustainable national resource management. In 2007 there was a twinning arrangement with China for technological transfer, and value addition in storage and processing.

Before the project, the main problems have been (i) poor land preparation; (ii) use of low branching variety of rice (yield 6 tonnes/ha); (iii) direct planning which uses a lot of seed; and (iv) poor control of water. The technological transfer will address these problems by (i) focusing on land levelling; (ii) use of high branching variety (12 tonnes/ha); (iii) use of pre-germinated seed when planting (35kg/ha) and (iv) regular control of water. The lower Limpopo irrigation project is worth USD250 million with irrigation infrastructure costing USD113 million. The approach is a private public producer partnerships arrangement targeting direct support to small-scale farmers and partial support (50% start-up) to emergent farmers who own 5-10 hectares. The project is on course to achieving the target set on the irrigated area; at the moment it has achieved 8,000ha. There was a number of cross cultural issues and adjustments (Chinese and Mozambican) that needed to be addressed for the project to remain on course.
Rice Drying Facilities at Wanbao Project

Discussion on what can be improved on the China-Africa agricultural cooperation:

  • China needs to hear the African voice in terms of ownership of the decision at all levels and demand driven strategies in order to have common understanding on both sides
  • Improve on the cross cultural understanding on win-win and there is need to borrow what works well in both cultures
  • China should set up factories in Africa to produce the technologies in Africa to increase cost effectiveness  
  • China needs to change the mindset on the view of Chinese technologies by providing after sale service and the technologies should be simple, adaptable and affordable to the African farmers 
  • China should provide information on the technologies available and the price ranges of the technologies for different markets
  • The trade imbalance between Africa (Exports 2.8 billion) and China (imports 2.5 billion) should be improved and there is need for preferential trade agreements to increase trade e.g. add value to the technologies in Africa and value addition for the raw materials that China imports
  • China should provide additional technical assistance to support the countries from USD30 million to assist in the development of investment policies to support the cooperation  

What can Africa do?

  • African countries need to avoid supply driven development through the review of investment policies, identification of financial needs, and allocation of budget to the cooperation 
  • Every country should have a clear entry strategy for the cooperation which highlights what is required to be shared with development partners.This should include land issues, human resource capacities and other gaps that need to be addressed in the cooperation 
  • Improve research extension linkage to enable technological transfer to be speeded up in the host country  
  • Improve Africa's participation and engagement in the cooperation and learn from the Nigerian example of active participation in the cooperation for a common cross cultural understanding on the win-win strategies 
  • More access to information on Chinese technologies provided through Government, set up demonstration of these technologies (include TORs of consultants, specifications, etc.), and strengthen the bureaus of standards to reinforce on standards   
  • There is need for a centralized information on the development partners investment requirements 
  • Government should encourage private sector involvement in the agricultural sector through enabling policies to encourage them into the sector.
  • Understand and improve the quality of agricultural products to meet the requirements for the Chinese markets. 

The importance of the south-south cooperation to IFAD was explained in the presentation of the scaling up agenda by Mr Cheik Sourang, Strategy and Knowledge Management. This presentation showed south-south triangular cooperation as an entry point for improved efficiency and impact at scale in agriculture and rural development. He mentioned the pathways, drivers and spaces for scaling up. He emphasized on the need for more systematic and proactive approaches, in order to reap the benefits of scale through learning, replication and partnerships. A learning event on the south-south and triangular cooperation will be hosted by IFAD on 12 September 2014 in Rome, Italy.

Visita FIDA a Oaxaca

Posted by Beate Stalsett 0 comments

Written by Mariana Castro Álvarez

Kanayo F. Nwanze, el Presidente del FIDA
©IFAD/Katie Taft
Durante el mes de julio, el señor Kanayo F. Nwanze, el Presidente del Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA), y su equipo de dedicados especialistas en temas para América Latina  y el Caribe viajaron a la Ciudad de México.

La agenda del viaje versó sobre diferentes actividades, sobre las cuales resaltan las reuniones con algunos de los representantes de Alto Nivel del gobierno Mexicano dedicados a la Agricultura, Hacienda, Desarrollo Social y asuntos forestales.

Además, se presentó un estudio regional sobre la agricultura familiar en América Latina, elaborado conjuntamente entre Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural (RIMISP) y el FIDA.
Parte de la misión consistió en una visita de campo a Oaxaca, en la que el sr. Nwanze, junto con delegados de la Comisión Nacional Forestal, visitaron un grupo de mujeres que han recibido capacitación en la producción de seda, en la sierra norte de dicho Estado mexicano. "Creemos que la población rural es parte de la solución a los problemas del mundo", mencionó el Presidente del FIDA. "Cuando las inversiones se han dirigido a las zonas rurales, hemos observado una y otra vez que las personas se han visto empoderadas para cultivar más alimentos, poner en marcha sus propios negocios, mejorar la nutrición de sus hijos y enviarlos a la escuela. Hemos visto como mujeres y hombres de las zonas rurales transforman sus comunidades".
Tejedoras de seda Oaxaca
©IFAD/Mariana Castro Álvarez

Junto al Fondo para el Medio Ambiente Mundial y en asociación con la Comisión Nacional Forestal, FIDA financia en México un proyecto que está creando nuevos sistemas de aprovechamiento forestal sostenible y de fijación de carbono, al tiempo que introduce programas para el fomento de emprendimientos rurales, gracias a los cuales la población de las comunidades Santo Domingo Xagacía y Santa María Yalina se han visto beneficiados.

El proyecto con las mujeres de Santo Domingo Xagacía, está enfocado principalmente a la capacitación en la producción de seda, un proceso heredado de generación en generación, que además de su potencial para la generación de ingresos, contribuye a preservar la cultura local. A pesar de que esta es una región en la cual la pobreza extrema afecta a más de la mitad de la población, el Presidente del FIDA comentó que "las desigualdades pueden eliminarse si nos damos cuenta hasta qué punto las zonas urbanas y las rurales son interdependientes".

©IFAD/Mariana Castro Álvarez
Por su parte, Josefina Stubbs, Directora de la División de América Latina y el Caribe de FIDA, quien también participó en la visita de campo, hizo énfasis sobre la importancia de  coordinar los diferentes recursos que se destinan a las comunidades, para poder así lograr el mayor impacto posible en el desarrollo rural, en este caso de las mujeres productoras de seda.

“Hay que ver cuál es la manera de hacer al producto menos costoso y de calidad homogénea, para que pueda tener un mayor mercado (…) y mantener en la mente la importancia de conversar con algunas tiendas en Oaxaca o en la Ciudad de México, para ofrecerles la compra de prendas elaboradas con el mismo trabajo de las mujeres, el cual es de excelente calidad, mencionó Josefina Stubbs. Asismismo, comentó sobre un programa regional de apoyo a emprendimientos de mujeres rurales, el cual es financiado por el FIDA y ejecutado a través de ONU Mujeres.

©IFAD/Mariana Castro Álvarez
Como parte de la agenda de trabajo, el equipo de FIDA visitó también la comunidad de Santa María Yalina, en la que seis jóvenes han puesto en marcha un pequeño negocio de venta de carbón vegetal.
Ahí se pudo constatar la viabilidad que tienen los negocios rurales liderados por jóvenes, con un enfoque de aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos naturales. “El éxito de las poblaciones rurales depende de cuán bien estén organizadas. La estructura organizativa es sumamente importante para lograr cohesión, trabajar conjuntamente y diseñar planes de negocios que luego puedan generar mayores ganancias”, comentó el Presidente del FIDA con los jóvenes empresarios.

Al finalizar la visita, el sr. Nwanze recalcó: "Si las economías rurales no son dinámicas, las personas continuarán migrando hacia las ciudades en busca de trabajo. Necesitamos un mundo en el que la población, el empleo, los servicios y las oportunidades estén distribuidos de forma más equilibrada".